What Is An Ingrown Toenail?
An ingrown toenail (also known as “onychocryptosis”) is a common condition. As the name applies, it occurs when the sides or edges of the toenail grow into the skin. As the nail pierces the skin, it can cause bleeding, redness and pain. If left untreated, the ingrown toenail can get infected.
Anyone can get an ingrown toenail. They occur most often on the big toe.
What Are The Symptoms Of An Ingrown Toenail?
The most common symptoms of an ingrown toenail are:
- Pain, irritation and sensitivity along the side(s) of your toenail
- Redness around your toenail
- Swelling of the tissue around your toenail
- Bleeding at the side(s) of the toenail.
Shoes that put pressure on the toenail can worsen these symptoms.
If pain and redness is accompanied by pus, this can mean the toenail is infected. You should seek medical attention from a doctor or foot specialist if you think you have an infected toenail.
What Causes Ingrown Toenails?
Common causes of ingrown toenails are:
- Cutting toenails incorrectly: Toenails should be cut straight across. Cutting the nail too short or angling the toenails on the sides can encourage an ingrown toenail to form
- Poorly fitting shoes: Shoes that squeeze and put pressure on the toes can encourage ingrown toenails.
- Injury to the nail bed: This can include a broken or cracked toenail, stubbing your toe or dropping something heavy on your toe that pushes the nail inward.
- A genetic predisposition to ingrown toenails
How Do I Treat An Ingrown Toenail?
An ingrown toenail can be treated at home in its early stages (i.e.: if it’s just irritated, but not infected or painful), or in-clinic by a foot specialist. You should immediately see a foot specialist for treatment if you have any of the following:
- Signs of infection (i.e.: pus, redness and protruding skin at the sides of the nail)
- Diabetes or any other medical condition that may cause complications.
- The ingrown toenail has pierced the skin
- The ingrown toenail has persisted for a while or does not respond to home remedies
Home Remedies (for mild cases in the early stages):
To treat your ingrown toenail at home:
- Soak the foot in a saltwater bath two to three times a day for 15 minutes.
- Massage and gently push the skin at the sides away from the nail.
- Dry your feet thoroughly afterwards
- Apply a topical antibiotic, like Neosporin or Polysporin, to prevent infection.
- Wear shoes with a wide toe box that lets the toes move freely. Opt for open-toe shoes if possible.
- Let the toenail grow out; when it does, cut it straight across – do not round or angle the corners of the toenail.
If the toenail isn’t better after 3 – 5 days, it’s time to call the foot specialist.
A chiropodist at our foot clinic can quickly and easily treat ingrown toenails at any stage. These procedures can involve:
- Antibiotics: Oral or antibiotic ointment is applied to prevent or heal infection.
- Softening the skin and lifting the edge of the nail from the skin, and then propping the corner of the nail up over the skin edge until the skin heals.
- Partial nail avulsion: The toe is first numbed with a local anesthetic. A narrow vertical strip is then removed on the affected side of the nail from the edge to the base of the nail. Antibiotics and a dressing are applied to the exposed nail bed to prevent infection.
- Removing or cutting open infected areas to allow the pus to drain (the toe can be numbed first with a local anesthetic).
- Phenol: This is a chemical that is applied to the area beneath the cuticle to prevent nail regrowth
See our Ingrown Toenail Treatment Services page for more information on how we can treat your ingrown toenails.
While waiting for an appointment with a chiropodist to treat an infected ingrown toenail, the following may help to manage the infection and reduce pain:
- Foot soaks in (Epsom) salt water bath
- Gently clean the area of pus and blood
- Apply sparing amounts of Polysporin ointment and cover with a bandage when going out
- Wear shoes with a wide toe box to reduce pressures
- Avoid injury and participation in sport activity which may exacerbate the problem (i.e.: running, soccer)
- Do not cut the toenail yourself as it may make the problem worse or make it more difficult for the chiropodist to treat conservatively
Risk factors for developing ingrown toenails are:
- Cutting toenails incorrectly: Cutting the toenails too short or angled at the sides increases the risk of developing ingrown toenails.
- Tight-fitting footwear: Footwear that is too narrow and places pressure on the toes make you more vulnerable to ingrown toenails. This also applies to socks and stockings.
- Genetic predisposition
- Activities that involve repeated pressure on the toes, such as soccer, ballet, kickboxing or running.
How Do I Prevent An Ingrown Toenail?
There are many ways to effectively prevent or reduce your risk for developing ingrown toenails. They include:
- Proper toenail care and foot hygiene: Cut your toenails straight across and make sure you don’t leave any stray pieces at the edge. Try not to cut them too short. Also keep your feet clean and dry.
- A medical pedicure by a chiropodist: This is a great option to prevent ingrown toenails, especially if you are genetically predisposed or do activities that increase your risk. A medical pedicure is performed by a trained foot care specialist, and is more effective at preventing ingrown toenails and other foot conditions than a cosmetic pedicure. Best of all, you get to pamper and treat yourself, while keeping your feet and toenails healthy. Click here for more information about the difference between a medical and cosmetic pedicure.
- Wear proper footwear: Wear low-heeled shoes that provide enough room for your toes to move around freely. Check out our online store (coming soon) or Toronto foot clinic for some great options. A foot specialist at our clinic can also help you find shoes that fit properly while encouraging healthy pain-free movement.
- Shoe-stretching: If your existing shoes are too tight, but you don’t want to buy a new pair, a foot specialist at our clinic can stretch them so that they fit your toes properly.
- Moisture-wicking socks: This will keep your feet stay clean and dry, which helps maintain good foot hygiene. Our foot clinic has many great and stylish options.
Our Toronto Foot Clinic offers many great services and products for preventing and treating ingrown toenails. To book an appointment, use our online booking form below or call us at 416-769-FEET (3338). We are open Mondays to Fridays from 9am to 6pm, and Fridays from 9am to 4pm.
Book an appointment for ingrown toenail
You do not need a referral to become a patient at our foot clinic. Schedule an appointment by using the Appointment Request form below or contact the clinic at 416-769-FEET(3338).